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Central Office and State Office: Improving the carbon emission trading mechanism and exploring pilot carbon trading

Central Office and State Office: Improving the carbon emission trading mechanism and exploring pilot carbon trading

The General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council issued the “Opinions on Establishing and Improving the Mechanism for Realizing the Value of Ecological Products”, which pointed out that it is encouraged to explore the transaction of greening incremental responsibility index and the transaction of water incremental responsibility index through government control or setting limits Method, legally and compliantly carry out trading of resource rights and interests indicators such as forest coverage rate. Improve the carbon emission rights trading mechanism and explore pilot projects for carbon sink rights trading. Improve the system of paid use of emission rights, and expand the types of pollutant transactions and trading areas for emission rights transactions. Explore the establishment of a trading mechanism for energy use rights. Explore innovative and perfect water rights trading mechanisms in key river basins such as the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers.

Full text of opinions:

The Central Office and the State Council issued the “Opinions on Establishing and Improving the Value Realization Mechanism of Ecological Products”

Recently, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council have issued the “Opinions on Establishing and Improving the Mechanism for Realizing the Value of Ecological Products” and issued a notice requesting all regions and departments to conscientiously implement them in light of actual conditions.

The full text of the “Opinions on Establishing and Improving the Value Realization Mechanism of Ecological Products” is as follows.

Establishing a sound mechanism for realizing the value of ecological products is an important measure to implement Jinping’s ecological civilization thought, a key path to practice the concept that green waters and green mountains are golden mountains and silver mountains, and to promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance capabilities in the field of ecological environment from the source. The inevitable requirement is of great significance to promote the overall green transformation of economic and social development. In order to accelerate the establishment of a sound mechanism for realizing the value of ecological products, and to find a new path of ecological priority and green development, the following opinions are hereby put forward.

1. General requirements

(1) Guiding ideology. Guided by Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, fully implement the spirit of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China and the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th Plenary Sessions of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, thoroughly implement Xi Jinping’s thoughts on ecological civilization, and follow the decisions and deployments of the Party Central Committee and the State Council , Coordinate the promotion of the “five in one” overall layout, coordinate the promotion of the “four comprehensive” strategic layout, base on the new development stage, implement the new development concept, build a new development pattern, adhere to the concept of green water and green mountains is the golden mountain and silver mountain, and adhere to the protection of the ecological environment To protect the productivity and improve the ecological environment is to develop the productivity, with the reform and innovation of the system and mechanism as the core, promote ecological industrialization and industrial ecologicalization, and accelerate the improvement of government-led, corporate and social participation, market-oriented operation, and the realization of sustainable ecological product value Path, focus on building a policy system that transforms green waters and green mountains into golden mountains and silver mountains, and promote the formation of a new model of ecological civilization construction with Chinese characteristics.

(2) Working principles

——Protection priority and rational use. Respect nature, conform to nature, protect nature, keep the boundaries of natural ecological security, completely abandon the practice of sacrificing the ecological environment in exchange for one-time economic growth, and insist on protecting natural ecosystems as a basis to increase natural capital and plant ecological product value.

——Government-led and market operation. Fully consider the value realization paths of different ecological products, pay attention to the government’s leading role in system design, economic compensation, performance evaluation, and create a social atmosphere, give full play to the decisive role of the market in resource allocation, and promote the effective conversion of ecological product value.

——Systematic planning and steady progress. Adhere to the system concept, do a good job in the top-level design, first establish a mechanism, and then launch a pilot program. According to the difficulty of realizing the value of various ecological products, implement classified policies, adjust measures to local conditions, and advance various tasks step by step.

——Support innovation and encourage exploration. Carry out policy and system innovation experiments, allow trial and error, timely correction, tolerance for failure, protect reform enthusiasm, break deep-level bottlenecks under the current institutional framework, summarize and promote typical cases and empirical practices in a timely manner, form a demonstration effect from point to point, and ensure the achievement of reform experiments Effective.

(3) Strategic orientation

-Cultivate new driving forces for high-quality economic development. Actively provide more high-quality ecological products to meet the people’s growing demand for a beautiful ecological environment, deepen the structural reform of the supply side of ecological products, continuously enrich the path to realize the value of ecological products, cultivate new business models and new models of green transformation and development, and make a good ecological environment become an economy Strong support for the sustainable and healthy development of society.

-Shaping a new pattern of coordinated development between urban and rural areas. Accurately connect to better meet the differentiated needs of the people for a better life, drive the vast rural areas to take advantage of their ecological advantages to get rich locally, and form a benign development mechanism, so that the areas that provide ecological products and the areas that provide agricultural products, industrial products, and service products are basically synchronized. To achieve modernization, the people enjoy a basically comparable standard of living.

——Lead the new trend of protecting and restoring the ecological environment. Establish an interest-oriented mechanism for ecological environmental protection to benefit from, users to pay, and destroyers to compensate, so that all parties can truly realize that green water and green mountains are golden mountains and silver mountains, and force and guide the formation of a green economic development mode and economic structure. , To encourage all localities to improve the supply capacity and level of ecological products, create a good atmosphere for all parties to participate in the restoration of ecological environmental protection, and enhance the ideological and action consciousness of protecting and restoring the ecological environment.

——Create a new plan for harmonious coexistence between man and nature. Through the reform and innovation of system and mechanism, we are the first to embark on a Chinese path in which ecological environmental protection and economic development mutually promote and complement each other, and better demonstrate our country’s responsibility as an important participant, contributor, and leader in the construction of global ecological civilization, in order to build the destiny of mankind. Community, provide Chinese wisdom and Chinese solutions to solve global environmental problems.

(4) Main goals. By 2025, the institutional framework for the realization of the value of ecological products will be preliminarily formed, a more scientific ecological product value accounting system will be initially established, the ecological protection compensation and ecological environmental damage compensation policy systems will be gradually improved, and the government assessment and evaluation mechanism for the realization of the value of ecological products will be initially formed. The problems of “difficulty, difficult to mortgage, difficult to trade, and difficult to realize” of ecological products have been effectively solved, the benefit-oriented mechanism of protecting the ecological environment has basically been formed, and the ability to transform ecological advantages into economic advantages has been significantly enhanced. By 2035, a complete mechanism for realizing the value of ecological products will be fully established, a new model of ecological civilization construction with Chinese characteristics will be fully formed, and a green production and lifestyle will be widely formed, providing strong support for the basic realization of the goal of building a beautiful China.

2. Establish an investigation and monitoring mechanism for ecological products

(5) Promote the confirmation and registration of natural resources. Improve the natural resource right confirmation registration system and standard, promote the unified confirmation registration in an orderly manner, clearly define the main body of natural resource asset property rights, and demarcate the boundary between ownership and use rights. Enrich the types of natural resource asset use rights, reasonably define the rights and responsibilities of transfer, transfer, lease, mortgage, and shareholding, and rely on the unified confirmation and registration of natural resources to clarify the rights and responsibilities of ecological products.

(6) Carry out a general survey of ecological product information. Based on the existing natural resources and ecological environment survey and monitoring system, use grid monitoring methods to carry out basic information surveys of ecological products, find out the quantity and quality of various ecological products, and form a list of ecological products. Establish a dynamic monitoring system for ecological products, track and grasp information on the quantity distribution, quality levels, functional characteristics, rights and interests, protection, development and utilization of ecological products in a timely manner, and establish an open and shared ecological product information cloud platform.

3. Establish an ecological product value evaluation mechanism

(7) Establish an ecological product value evaluation system. In view of the different paths to realize the value of ecological products, explore the construction of the total value of the ecological product of the administrative area unit and the ecological product value evaluation system of the specific area unit. Consider the functional attributes of different types of ecosystems, reflect the quantity and quality of ecological products, and establish a statistical system for the total value of ecological products covering all levels of administrative regions. Explore the integration of basic data of ecological product value accounting into the national economic accounting system. Consider the commodity attributes of different types of ecological products, establish a value accounting method that reflects the protection and development costs of ecological products, and explore the establishment of an ecological product price formation mechanism that reflects the relationship between market supply and demand.

(8) Formulate accounting standards for the value of ecological products. Encourage local governments to first carry out ecological value accounting focusing on the physical quantity of ecological products, and then explore the economic value accounting of different types of ecological products through market transactions, economic compensation and other means, and gradually revise and improve the accounting methods. On the basis of summarizing the value accounting practices of various regions, explore and formulate ecological product value accounting standards, clarify the ecological product value accounting indicator system, specific algorithms, data sources and statistical calibers, and promote the standardization of ecological product value accounting.

(9) Promote the application of ecological product value accounting results. Promote the application of ecological product value accounting results in government decision-making and performance appraisal. Explore when preparing various plans and implementing engineering projects, taking necessary compensation measures based on the actual amount of ecological products and the results of value accounting to ensure that ecological products maintain and increase their value. Promote the application of ecological product value accounting results in ecological protection compensation, ecological environmental damage compensation, operation and development financing, and ecological resource rights transactions. Establish an ecological product value accounting result release system, and evaluate the effectiveness of ecological protection and the value of ecological products in various places in a timely manner.

4. Improving the management and development mechanism of ecological products

(10) Promote the precise connection between supply and demand of ecological products. Promote the construction of ecological product trading centers, regularly hold ecological product promotion expos, organize online cloud transactions and cloud investment promotion of ecological products, and promote the efficient connection of ecological product suppliers and demanders, and resource parties and investors. Through channels such as the news media and the Internet, we will increase the promotion and promotion of ecological products, increase the social attention of ecological products, and expand the revenue and market share of operation and development. Strengthen and standardize platform management, give full play to the advantages of e-commerce platform resources and channels, and promote more high-quality ecological products to conduct transactions in convenient channels and methods.

(11) Expand the value realization model of ecological products. Under the premise of strictly protecting the ecological environment, encourage the adoption of diversified models and paths, and scientifically and rationally promote the realization of the value of ecological products. Relying on the unique natural endowments of different regions, the original ecological planting and breeding models such as human breeding, self-reproduction and self-supporting are adopted to improve the value of ecological products. Scientifically use advanced technology to implement intensive processing, expand and extend the ecological product industrial chain and value chain. Relying on natural background conditions such as clean water, clean air, and suitable climate, moderately develop environmentally sensitive industries such as digital economy, clean medicine, and electronic components, and promote the transformation of ecological advantages into industrial advantages. Relying on the beautiful natural scenery and historical and cultural heritage, the introduction of professional design and operation teams, under the premise of minimizing human disturbance, create an eco-tourism development model that integrates tourism and health and leisure. Accelerate the cultivation of the main body of ecological product market operation and development, encourage the revitalization of stock resources such as abandoned mines, industrial sites, and ancient villages, promote the centralized transfer of related resource rights and interests, and enhance the value of education, culture and tourism development through the overall implementation of the ecological environment system improvement and supporting facilities construction.

(12) Promote the value-added of ecological products. Encourage the creation of regional public brands of ecological products with distinctive characteristics, incorporate various ecological products into the scope of the brand, strengthen brand cultivation and protection, and increase the premium of ecological products. Establish and standardize ecological product certification evaluation standards, and build an ecological product certification system with Chinese characteristics. Promote international mutual recognition of ecological product certification. Establish an ecological product quality traceability mechanism, improve the whole-process supervision system of ecological product trading and circulation, promote the application of new technologies such as blockchain, and realize ecological product information can be inquired, quality can be traced, and responsibility can be traced. Encourage the linking of ecological environmental protection restoration with the rights and interests of ecological product management and development. For social entities that carry out comprehensive renovation of barren mountains and wastelands, black and odorous water bodies, and rocky desertification, a certain proportion of land is allowed to use under the premise of ensuring ecological benefits and complying with laws and regulations. Develop eco-agriculture and eco-tourism to obtain benefits. Encourage the implementation of a dividend distribution model for farmers to participate in the operation and development of ecological products to protect the interests of villagers participating in the operation and development of ecological products. In areas where the exploration of the mechanism for realizing the value of ecological products is carried out, various measures are encouraged to increase support for the construction of necessary transportation, energy and other infrastructure and basic public service facilities.

(13) Promote the transaction of ecological resources rights and interests. Encourage through government control or setting limits to explore ways such as greening incremental accountability indicator trading, clean water incremental accountability indicator trading, and legally and compliantly to conduct resource equity indicator trading such as forest coverage. Improve the carbon emission rights trading mechanism and explore pilot projects for carbon sink rights trading. Improve the system of paid use of emission rights, and expand the types of pollutant transactions and trading areas for emission rights transactions. Explore the establishment of a trading mechanism for energy use rights. Explore innovative and perfect water rights trading mechanisms in key river basins such as the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers.

5. Improving the compensation mechanism for ecological product protection

(14) Improve the compensation system for vertical ecological protection. The central and provincial finances will improve the transfer payment fund allocation mechanism for key ecological function areas with reference to factors such as the results of ecological product value accounting and the area of ​​the ecological protection red line. Encourage local governments to coordinate transfer payment funds in the ecological sector under the premise of laws and regulations, and support the realization of the value of ecological products based on the systematic protection and restoration of the ecological environment through the establishment of market-oriented industrial development funds and other methods. Explore ways to broaden ecological protection compensation funds through the issuance of corporate ecological bonds and social donations. Implement ecological compensation to residents in areas that mainly provide ecological products by establishing ecological public welfare posts that meet actual needs.

(15) Establish a horizontal ecological protection compensation mechanism. Encourage the supply and benefit areas of ecological products in accordance with the principle of voluntary consultation, comprehensively consider the results of ecological product value accounting, the physical quantity and quality of ecological products, and other factors, and carry out horizontal ecological protection compensation. Support the development of horizontal ecological protection compensation based on entry and exit section water volume and water quality monitoring results in key river basins that meet the requirements. Explore the compensation model for remote development, establish cooperative parks between the ecological product supply areas and the beneficiary areas, and improve the benefit distribution and risk sharing mechanism.

(16) Improve the ecological environment damage compensation system. Promote the internalization of the cost of ecological environmental damage, strengthen the implementation and supervision of ecological environmental restoration and damage compensation, improve the administrative law enforcement and judicial linkage mechanism for ecological environmental damage, and increase the cost of illegally destroying the ecological environment. Improve the sewage and garbage treatment charging mechanism, and reasonably formulate and adjust the charging standards. Carry out ecological environment damage assessment, and improve ecological environment damage identification and assessment methods and implementation mechanisms.

6. Improve the guarantee mechanism for the realization of the value of ecological products

(17) Establish an evaluation mechanism for the value of ecological products. Explore the integration of the total value of ecological products into the comprehensive performance evaluation of the party committees and governments of various provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities). Promote the implementation of the cancellation of the assessment of economic development indicators in the key ecological function areas that mainly provide ecological products, and focus on the assessment of the supply capacity of ecological products, the improvement of environmental quality, and the effectiveness of ecological protection; implement economic development and ecological protection in other major function areas in due course “Double assessment” of product value. Promote the use of ecological product value accounting results as an important reference for the outgoing audit of natural resource assets of leading cadres. If the total value of ecological products drops significantly during the term of office, the relevant party and government leading cadres shall be held accountable in accordance with regulations and disciplines.

(18) Establish an interest-oriented mechanism for ecological and environmental protection. Explore the construction of an ecological points system covering enterprises, social organizations and individuals, assign corresponding points based on the contribution of ecological environmental protection, and provide ecological product preferential services and financial services based on the points. Guide localities to establish diversified fund investment mechanisms, encourage social organizations to establish ecological public welfare funds, and work together to promote the realization of the value of ecological products. Strictly implement the “Environmental Protection Tax Law of the People’s Republic of China” and promote resource tax reform. On the basis of complying with relevant laws and regulations, explore and standardize the supply of land to serve the sustainable operation and development of ecological products.

(19) Increase support for green finance.Encourage enterprises and individuals to carry out green credit services such as mortgage of water and forest rights and product order mortgages in accordance with laws and regulations, explore the “ecological asset equity mortgage project loan” model, and support the improvement of the ecological environment and the development of green industries in the region. Explore financial product innovations such as ancient house loans in areas where conditions permit, and carry out capital financing in the form of purchasing and storage, trusteeship, etc., for the improvement of the surrounding ecological environment system, the rescue and transformation of ancient houses, and the development of rural leisure tourism. Encourage banking institutions to innovate financial products and services in accordance with the principles of marketization and rule of law, increase support for medium and long-term loans to the main body of ecological product operation and development, reasonably reduce financing costs, and improve the quality and efficiency of financial services. Encourage government financing guarantee institutions to provide financing guarantee services for eligible ecological product operation and development entities. Explore the path and mode of asset securitization of ecological products.

7. Establish a promotion mechanism for the realization of the value of ecological products

(20) Strengthen organization and leadership. In accordance with the overall requirements of central coordination, provincial responsibility, and city and county implementation, an overall coordination mechanism should be established and improved, and efforts to realize the value of ecological products should be strengthened. The National Development and Reform Commission strengthens overall planning and coordination, and all relevant departments and units divide their responsibilities according to their responsibilities, formulate and improve related supporting policies and systems, and form an overall force for synergistic promotion of the realization of the value of ecological products. Local party committees and governments at all levels must fully understand the importance of establishing and improving the value realization mechanism of ecological products, and take effective measures to ensure the precise implementation of various policies and systems.

(21) Promote pilot demonstrations. At the national level, we will coordinate the pilot demonstration work, select regions with conditions across river basins, across administrative regions, and provinces, and carry out in-depth pilot projects of ecological product value realization mechanisms, focusing on ecological product value accounting, accurate supply and demand, and sustainable operation and development. , Protection and compensation, evaluation and assessment, etc. to carry out practical explorations. Encourage all provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government) to actively take the lead, sum up successful experiences in time, and strengthen publicity and promotion. Select regions with significant pilot results to build a batch of demonstration bases for the value realization mechanism of ecological products.

(22) Strengthen intellectual support. Relying on colleges and universities and scientific research institutions, strengthen research on the reform and innovation of ecological product value realization mechanism, strengthen related professional construction and talent training, and cultivate high-end think tanks that cross fields and disciplines. Organize international seminars and experience exchange forums to carry out international cooperation in the realization of the value of ecological products.

(23) Promote and urge implementation. The progress of the realization of the value of ecological products will be used as an important reference for evaluating the party and government leaders and relevant leading cadres. Systematically sort out the current laws, regulations and departmental rules related to the realization of the value of ecological products, and implement reforms and abolishment in due course. The National Development and Reform Commission and relevant parties regularly evaluate the implementation of these opinions, and report major issues to the Party Central Committee and the State Council in a timely manner.


Post time: May-25-2021